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Health Library guide to Referencing & Reference Management

A guide to writing up your assignments & how to create & manage your references in Harvard or Vancouver Style using RefWorks for free at UNic

Harvard style citations

Type of Reference

In-text Format

End of Paper Reference List Format

Book or E-Book
1 Author
2 or 3 Authors
Rule! use and between author 1 and 2 or 2 and 3.
4 or more Authors
Rule! use first author's name followed by et al.


Wait (2019) explored the link between...

In their book, Cite Them Write, (Pears and Shields, 2019) describe how to...

Behavioural problems outlined by Collier, Longmore and Amarkone (2013) include…

Kinematics, as described by Franklin et al. (2010) is the word used to…



Wait, R. (2019) Adverse childhood experiences. New York: Routledge.

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2019) Cite them write: the essential referencing guide. 11th edn. London: Red Globe Press.


Collier, J., Longmore, M. and Amarakone, K. (2013) Oxford handbook of clinical specialties. 9th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



Franklin, K. et al. (2010) Introduction to biological physics for the health and life sciences. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.


Book Chapter in edited book
Amyloidosis, according to Kisilevsky (2010) ...

Kisilevsky, R. (2010) ‘The amyloidoses’ in Rubin, E. and Reisner, M. (eds.) Essentials of Rubin’s pathology. 5th edn.  Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, pp. 495-500


Journal Articles
Rule! Number of authors is same as for books listed above
Lupski (1999) concludes that the PMP22 gene has a causative role in CMT type...

Lupski, J. (1999) 'Charcot-Marie-Tooth polyneuropathy: duplication, gene dosage, and genetic heterogeneity', Pediatric Research, 45(2), pp.159-165.

Raeymaekers, P. et al. (1991) 'Duplication in chromosome 17p11.2 in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1a (CMT 1a)', Neuromuscular Disorders, 1(2), pp.93-97.


Web Pages







National Health Service advice to citizens on COVID-19 (2020) included ...


With regard to management of faecal incontinence in adults (NICE, 2007) ...

National Health Service (2020) Corona virus (COVID-19). Available at: (Accessed: 28 February 2020).


NICE (2007) Faecal incontinence in adults: management CG49 .Available at: (Accessed: 19 August 2019).



Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
The stated success rate for weight loss surgery (Colquitt et al.) is disputed by... Colquitt, J. L. et al. (2014) 'Surgery for weight loss in adults', Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8,. CD003641. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003641.pub4.


MOODLE PowerPoint

Use of jargon is an example of poor communication by healthcare professionals (Papageorgiou, 2018).

Papageorgiou, A. (2018) ‘Communication and the therapeutic relationship’. [PowerPoint presentation] CS101: Introduction to clinical communication skills. Available at: (Accessed: 11 July 2019)


Confidential Patient Information
Patient X  (2009) explained that their symptoms included... [Patient X] (2009) Patient history notes. Cyprus: Unpublished


Conference Proceedings Article

According to Sriphong (2019) the PBL method can be enhanced by the use of  e-learning tools ....

Sriphong, L. (2019) ‘Innovative problem-based learning integrated with G suite for education’, 10th International conference on e-education, e-business, e-management and e-learning. Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan 10 - 13 January. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp 163-167