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Health Library guide to Referencing & Reference Management

A guide to writing up your assignments & how to create & manage your references in Harvard or Vancouver Style using RefWorks for free at UNic

Vancouver style citations


Type of Reference

In-text Format

Superscript 1or brackets (1) may be used

End of Paper Reference List Format

Rule!: The same citation number is used whenever a source is cited in your text.


One function of the cardiovascular system1 is rapid transport of nutrients ...

1. Newby DE, Grubb NR. Cardiology: an illustrated colour text. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2005.


Book Chapter in edited book Inadequate regulation of health system2 can lead to poor quality of care ...


2. Harris DM. Health system regulations. In: Fried BJ, Gaydos LM, editors. World health systems: Challenges and perspectives. Chicago: Health Administration Press; 2012. p. 71-89.

Stenting is the most commonly used surgical technique for coronary artery disease3 … 

3. Bavry AA, Mukherjee D. Interventional Cardiology [Internet]. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2011 [cited 2020 Feb 27]. p.296.(Oxford American Cardiology Library). Available from:,sso&db=nlebk&AN=438942&site=eds-live

Print journal article  

Rule! use up to 6 authors; if more than six add et al.

Diuretic resistance is defined as an impaired sensitivity to diuretics resulting in reduced natriuresis4

4. Mullens W, Damman K, Harjola VP, Mebazaa A, Brunner-La Rocca HP, Martens P, et al. The use of diuretics in heart failure with congestion-a position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur J Heart Fail 2019 02; 21(2):137-155.

NOTE: Journal title abbreviations are always used ; find correct abbreviations at

E-journal article

Atrial fibrillation5 is the most common arrhythmia affecting elderly patients ...

5. Kloosterman M, Crijns HJGM, Van Gelder IC. Rising prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the elderly population: new challenges of geriatric cardiology, EP Europace [Internet]. 2019 Oct [cited 2020 Feb 28]; 21(10):1451-1453. Available from:  

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

People with failure6report various symptoms and show a trajectory of ...

6. Nishikawa Y, Hiroyama N, Fukahori H, Ota E, Mizuno A, Miyashita M. Advance care planning for adults with heart failure. 2020 Feb 27. In: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 754KB. 2020(2). Available from: 

NICE Guidelines

Names of organizations are spelled out!

To diagnose hypertension7, measure blood pressure…

7. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), Hypertension in adults: diagnosis and management: NICE Guideline [NG 136]. 2019. Available from: [Accessed 3rd March 2020].

Centres for Disease Control

Coronary artery disease(CAD)8 , is caused by ...

8. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Coronary artery disease (CAD). Available from:
Conference Paper 1D convolutional neural network to classify single lead ECG...9 9. Zhou X, Zhu X, Nakamura K, Mahito N. ECG Quality Assessment Using 1D-Convolutional Neural Network. 2018 14th IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing (ICSP) [Internet]. 2018 Aug 12-16; Beijing (CN). Available from: https://doi: 10.1109/ICSP.2018.8652479.

MOODLE Lecture

Sleep duration10 was found to be shorter ...

10. Georgiades, S. Arousal, circadian rhythms and sleep [lecture notes]. MED 104 Medical Psychology, University of Nicosia Medical School; 2019 Oct 28 – Nov 1 [cited 2019 Mar 3]. Available from

Clinical Trials e.g.

Ongoing investigations into GERD 11... [Internet]. Betheseda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2000 Feb 29- . Identifier NCT00297391, Sleep disorders and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); 2006 Feb 3 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: